Information on the endangerment status of a breed is most important for planning sustainable conservation programmes. The status is calculated on the basis of population size and structure.
In Germany, the National Committee on Animal Genetic Resources classifies farm animal breeds of the species horse, cattle, pig, sheep and goat into categories of endangerment (Red List) resp. for poultry breeds it is done by the Federation of German Poultry Breeders together with the Society for the Conservation of Old and Endangered Livestock Breeds. In Europe the classification is done by the European Federation of Animal Sciences (EAAP) and globally by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO).
According to the National Programme the National Committee on Animal Genetic Resources classifies the indigenous farm animal breeds into categories of endangerment. The classification is based on the effective population size (Ne) which is calculated with the herd-book data as documented in TGRDEU according to the following formula:
(4 x males x females) / (males + females)
The National Programme distinguishes the following categories:
|Phenotypic Conservation Population (PCP)||Ne ≤ 50||Within the conservation population, most breeds with Ne ≤ 50 have only a slight chance of becoming an independent live population again in the long run. Their existing genetic stock should thus be secured by means of cryoconservation. They could then be integrated into larger related populations. Live conservation of such breeds, particularly of their phenotype, can nevertheless be relevant due to their cultural and historical value. This is why some (a total of twelve) populations have been especially identified as PCP.|
|Conservation Population (CP)||Ne ≤ 200||Highly endangered population for which immediate conservation measures are needed to stabilise the effective population size and to minimise further genetic loss.|
|Monitoring Population (MP)||200 < Ne ≤ 1000||Endangered population which should be monitored and for which a semen cryoconservation programme should be initiated as soon as the number of adult male animals falls below 100.|
|Non-Endangered Population (NE)||Ne > 1000||Non-endangered population in which Ne should be regularly calculated and the trend documented.|
However, the National Committee can classify a breed into an endangerment category different to the one recommended by calculation if special conditions or reasons apply.
The “Red List of Germany’s endangered indigenous farm animal breeds” is updated on a regular basis and published in TGRDEU.
BDRG / GEH (poultry)
Poultry breeding with a wide range of breeds and colours of chicken, bantams, geese, ducks, turkeys and guinea fowls has a long tradition in Germany. The Federation of German Poultry Breeders serves as umbrella organisation of all breeders and associations and makes major contributions for the co-ordination and organisation of poultry breeding in Germany.
The BDRG together with the Society for the Conservation of Old and Endangered Livestock Breeds published a “Common list of old, indigenous and endangered poultry breeds” based on monitoring results from 2005. Indigenous in this context are those poultry breeds with a sustainable use which were either bred in Germany before 1930 or those breeds which have been approved since then.
Poultry breeds are classified into the following endangerment categories:
|I||extremely endangered||< 25 breeding units|
|II||highly endangered||≥ 25 <50 breeding units|
|III||endangered||≥ 50 < 100 breeding units|
|IV||less endangered||≥ 100 < 150 breeding units|
|V||monitoring||≤ 150 breeding units|
The endangerment criteria of the European Federation of Animal Sciences (EAAP) are based on the expected cumulated inbreeding within the next 50 years and is applicable to cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, ass and pig only. A breed can be classified into one of the following categories:
|Critically Endangered||Ne < 14||Ne < 20||Ne < 11||Ne < 33|
|Endangered||14 ≤ Ne < 20||20 ≤ Ne < 28||11 ≤ Ne < 16||33 ≤ Ne < 47|
|Minimally Endangered||20 ≤ Ne < 32||28 ≤ Ne < 45||16 ≤ Ne < 25||47 ≤ Ne < 74|
|Potentially Endangered||32 ≤ Ne < 67||45 ≤ Ne < 95||25 ≤ Ne < 52||74 ≤ Ne <157|
|Not Endangered||Ne ≥ 67||Ne ≥ 95||Ne ≥ 52||Ne ≥ 157|
In case the number of herds is less than 10 and the number of breeding females is below 500 the breed is assigned to the next critical category. The breed is also assigned to the next critical category if the number of breeding females is below 1,000 and decreasing.
The classification of the regionally resp. internationally transboundary breeds is dynamical. The classification as listed in the databank may therefore differ from the figures in the EAAP database EFABIS.
According to the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources Report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) breeds are classified into one of the following categories:
|extinct||It is no longer possible to recreate the breed population. This situation becomes absolute when there are no breeding males or breeding females remaining. In reality extinction may be realised well before the loss of the last animal, gamete or embryo.|
|critical||The total number of breeding females is less than or equal to 100 or the total number of breeding males is less than or equal to five; or The overall population size is less than or equal to 120 and decreasing and the percentage of females being bred to males of the same breed is below 80 percent.|
The total number of breeding females is greater than 100 and less than or equal to 1000
the total number of breeding males is less than or equal to 20 and greater than five;
The overall population size is greater than 80 and less than 1000 and increasing and the percentage of females being bred to males of the same breed is above 80 percent;
The overall population size is greater than 1000 and less than or equal to 1200 decreasing and the percentage of females being bred to males of the same breed is below 80 percent. Breeds may be further categorized as CRITICAL-MAINTAINED or ENDANGERED-MAINTAINED. These categories identify critical or endangered populations for which active conservation programmes are in place or populations are maintained by commercial companies or research institutions.
|not at risk||A breed is categorised as Not at Risk if none of the above definitions apply and: The total number of breeding females and males are greater than 1,000 and 20, respectively.|
The classification of the regionally resp. internationally transboundary breeds is dynamical. The classification as listed in the databank may therefore differ from the figures in the FAO database, DAD-IS.